The development of the Reduce computer algebra system was started in the 1960s by Anthony C. Hearn. Since then, many scientists from all over the world have contributed to its development under his direction.
Reduce is written entirely in its own LISP dialect called Portable Standard LISP, expressed in an Algol-like syntax called RLISP. The latter is used as a basis for Reduce's user-level language.
Intuitively, problem A is reducible to problem B if an algorithm for solving problem B efficiently (if it existed) could also be used as a subroutine to solve problem A efficiently. When this is true, solving A cannot be harder than solving B. "Harder" means having a higher estimate of the required computational resources in a given context (e.g., higher time complexity, etc.).
We write A ≤m B, usually with a subscript on the ≤ to indicate the type of reduction being used (m: mapping reduction, p: polynomial reduction).
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination. It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events, such as the feeling of imminent death. Anxiety is not the same as fear, which is a response to a real or perceived immediate threat, whereas anxiety is the expectation of future threat. Anxiety is a feeling of fear, uneasiness, and worry, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing. It is often accompanied by muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue and problems in concentration. Anxiety can be appropriate, but when experienced regularly the individual may suffer from an anxiety disorder.
Anxiety is the second studio album by New Zealand recording artist Ladyhawke, released on 25 May 2012 by Modular Recordings. It was recorded in early 2011 with long-time collaborator Pascal Gabriel, who co-wrote all tracks on the album. "Black White & Blue" was released as the album's lead single on 24 January 2012, followed by "Sunday Drive" on 9 April 2012 and "Blue Eyes" on 16 July 2012.
Background and recording
Ladyhawke first revealed plans to work on a second album in a message on her official website in May 2010. She explained the four-year gap between her self-titled debut album and Anxiety by saying, "I had no idea how exhausted I'd be after I finished touring. I was physically incapable of doing anything. I tried to start recording about a month after I finished on tour and I turned up at the studio and just fell asleep. I was like a zombie." The album was recorded in New Zealand and at Pascal Gabriel's house in the south of France in early 2011. "Working in London, I am quite bad at getting distracted, so I think it was a ploy to literally lock me away. My bedroom is right below the studio so there is no escaping. I can hear [Gabriel's] foot tapping in the morning as if to say 'wake up'", she told Stuff.co.nz.
Anxiety is the second album by the post-grunge music group Smile Empty Soul. The album was scheduled to be released in the fall of 2005 via Lava Records, but after numerous push-backs due to heavy protest from religious groups (mainly in regards to the proposed lead single "Holes") the label scrapped the album and Smile Empty Soul departed. Though Lava chose not to release the album, they would not allow the band to on their own, as they owned the rights to the music. In 2008, the band was to finally able to officially release Anxiety through their own label, MRAfia Records. On March 9, 2010, Anxiety was re-released under F.O.F Label Group titled "More Anxiety". In addition to Anxiety tracks and the MRAfia Version bonus tracks, it also included a re-designed album cover art, a bonus DVD and "Hidden Track" (This is War [2009 Remix]). There is also another variation of More Anxiety that contained another bonus track "Aneurysm" in addition to the previous More Anxiety released by F.O.F. Label Group. This variant was available for free download for those who donated to Smile Empty Soul Feeds the Hunger sponsored by Groupees.